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Friday, July 24, 2020 | History

2 edition of Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle found in the catalog.

Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle

Pacific Northwest Laboratory

Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle

(proliferation resistance engineering program, PREP)

by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  • 191 Want to read
  • 30 Currently reading

Published by Dept. of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, for sale by the National Technical Information Service] in Richland, Wash, [Springfield, Va .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Nuclear fuels,
  • Nuclear nonproliferation,
  • Nuclear engineering

  • Edition Notes

    StatementPacific Northwest Laboratory, R. J. Sorenson ...[et al.]
    SeriesPNL ; 2832
    ContributionsSorenson, R. J. 1935-, United States. Dept. of Energy
    The Physical Object
    Pagination247 p. in various pagings :
    Number of Pages247
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14882328M

    The many different fuel cycle operations, such as shipping, blending with uranium, fabrication into fresh MOx, storage, and further shipping, all provide opportunities for diversion. A plutonium disposition program will therefore be less than half a loaf unless accompanied by a commitment to end all further separation of plutonium. This would then require remote-handling operations, not only in the handling of the logs but in the initial processing stages as well, substantially increasing the proliferation resistance of the product. The radioactive decay rates of both the defense HLW and the Cs spiking seem to follow roughly the year half-life of Cs (Wicks ).

    Reactor-grade plutonium (RGPu) is the isotopic grade of plutonium that is found in spent nuclear fuel after the uranium primary fuel that a nuclear power reactor uses has burnt uranium from which most of the plutonium isotopes derive by neutron capture is found along with the U in the low enriched uranium fuel of civilian reactors.. In contrast to the low burnup of weeks or. This is because the excess plutonium produced by the IFR is very "dirty" (highly contaminated with fission products and actinides, which is the anti-proliferation aspect of the fuel cycle). The "dirt" would provide additional difficulties in both the reprocessing and fabrication of MOX fuel elements due to the contamination with fission.

    the possibility of enhancing plutonium production and creating more fissile fuel than was consumed. After fuel has burnt for one cycle, the excess plutonium could be extracted, separated from uranium, and reprocessed into fuel rods. By “breeding” plutonium within a closed fuel cycle, we can tap most of the nuclear energy. The Plutonium used in RTGs has a half-life of 88 years, as opposed to the plutonium used in nuclear weapons and reactors, which has a half-life of 24, years. [ full citation needed ] In April a SNAP-9A failed to achieve orbit and disintegrated, dispersing roughly 1 kilogram ( lb) of plutonium over all continents.


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Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle by Pacific Northwest Laboratory Download PDF EPUB FB2

Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle: (proliferation resistance engineering program, PREP) Author: R J Sorenson ; Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Abstract. This document describes the proliferation resistance engineering concepts developed to counter the threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons in an International Fuel Service Center (IFSC).

The basic elements of an International Fuel Service Center are described. Possible methods for resisting proliferation such as processing alternatives, close-coupling of facilities, process. Purchase Proliferation, Plutonium and Policy - 1st Edition.

Print Book & E-Book. ISBNBook Edition: 1. [Spiking of plutonium with /sup /Pu]}, author = {Campbell, D. and Gift, E. H.}, abstractNote = {The properties of plutonium containing unusually large proportions of the /sup /Pu isotope are considered in relation to resistance to nuclear proliferation.

Several fuel cycle. Proliferation resistance of plutonium can be enhanced by increasing the decay heat of plutonium. For example, it can be enhanced by increasing the isotopic fraction of Pu, which has the largest decay heat among plutonium isotopes. In the present paper, the proliferation resistance of plutonium was evaluated based on decay heat with a.

Results suggest that the U.K. stockpile could be irradiated to that proliferation resistance target in years, using two MWth PRISM cores operating at a 30 MWd/kgHM burnup rate. By the time all the U.K.

plutonium has been irradiated, however a fraction of the PRISM spent fuel will have decayed below the proliferation resistance target. Protected plutonium production (PPP) is an intrinsic measure to enhance the proliferation resistance of Pu by raising the Pu isotopic concentration, which denatures Pu on account of the high.

Increasing proliferation resistance of plutonium by way of increased Pu content is of interest to the nuclear nonproliferation and international safeguards community. Considering the high alpha decay heat of Pu, increasing the isotopic fraction leads to a noticeably higher amount of heat generation within the plutonium.

High heat generation is especially unattractive in the scenario of. u However, proliferation-resistance is NOT just about avoiding having separated plutonium or HEU in the cycle. – Source for acquisition of technology (e.g., Iraq, Iran, India) – Cover for building facilities whose military intent would otherwise be obvious (e.g., Iranian centrifuge plant).

the need for proliferation-resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup, improved waste form characteristics, reduction of plutonium inventories and in situ use of bred-in fissile material has led to renewed interest in thorium-based fuels and fuel cycles in several developed countries.

To illustrate the seriousness of these proliferation risks, 8 kg of weapon-grade plutonium ( Pu) is sufficient to produce a bomb with the devastation potential of the Nagasaki bomb.

The kind of plutonium emerging from a power reactor under normal circumstances consists of different isotopes including Pu, Pu and Pu; Figure shows the buildup of different plutonium isotopes.

Keywords: figure of merit, nuclear fuel cycle, proliferation resistance, Plutonium 1 Plutonium in the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle Plutonium’s presence in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle is due to its production in all types of nuclear reactors that utilize uranium-containing nuclear fuel.

This is the result. (Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General, International Atomic Energy Agency (), Nobel Peace Prize ()) "The s dream of a plutonium economy has not delivered abundant low-cost energy, but instead has left the world a radioactive legacy of nuclear weapons proliferation and the real potential for nuclear terrorism.

In the mixed fuel cycle, the following double-strata structure may be estimated as an effective and proliferation resistant option (Figs. 18, 19): the top stratum includes full-scale reprocessing of spent fuel assemblies in the International nuclear technology centers with complete incineration of plutonium and minor actinides, the bottom.

This paper provides a description of the GT-MHR and its plutonium disposition characteristics, including the diversion and proliferation resistance characteristics of the fuel cycle. Information is also presented on deployment cost and schedule, on the gas-cooled reactor experience base, and on the status of the current GT-MHR development program.

Unfortunately, plutonium reprocessing and the resulting "plutonium economy" presented with a serious new security problem by substantially increasing the danger of proliferation of nuclear weapons. Furthermore, plutonium recycling in the fuel, mixed with natural or depleted uranium, results in significant improvement in natural uranium utilization and proliferation resistance characteristics [7].

There are different possibilities under consideration to increase the fuel burn-up and reduction of radioactive waste. Meanwhile, resistance to proliferation can easily be built into the design of the fuel cycle. It is possible to envisage separation schemes in which uranium and plutonium from irradiated fuel are recovered together—and no pure plutonium product, which might cause proliferation concerns, is.

The mathematical model presented in (Kulikov et al. ) can be used for the quantitative evaluation of the plutonium proliferation resistance. This requires the warm-up process of an implosion nuclear explosive device (NED) with a different structure to be analyzed with respect to various heat removal conditions and the option to be identified in which the NED remains operational for the.

The possibility of core-design concepts for low breeding core to enhance proliferation resistance of plutonium generated in UO 2 blanket has been investigated from the viewpoint of core-design.

Source: Red Book (RRA) CEA The main criteria have been defined ‐ safety, economics, proliferation resistance and sustainability ‐ which all highlight the relevance of recycling in fast reactors.

and of burning a greater quantity of plutonium. The design of these reactors will be optimised with respect to the tasks they need to.Nuclear weapons proliferation has been described as the “largest single vulnerability associated with the expansion of nuclear power”.

1 Restricting the spread of nuclear material whilst at the same time promoting nuclear power simply does not work. The idea that conventional nuclear reactors are somehow proliferation resistant is based on a fundamental misconception.The integral fast reactor (IFR, originally advanced liquid-metal reactor) is a design for a nuclear reactor using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor).IFR would breed more fuel and is distinguished by a nuclear fuel cycle that uses reprocessing via electrorefining at the reactor site.

IFR development began in and the U.S. Department of Energy built a prototype, the.